Archive for July 2015

Treasure Chest Thursday:- Māori Land Court Minute Books - Part 2: Searching

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To search the minute books you will need to use the Māori Land Court Minute Book Index. This index was created in the 1990s by librarians at the University of Auckland. The index covers 1,100 minute books from the whole country for hearings held between 1865-1910.

The index is available via two platforms. Either through Knowledge Basket, which Auckland Library members can access via the Digital Library, or through DBTextworks.

Auckland Library members can search the DBTextworks version on pcs at the Central Auckland Research Centre, the South Auckland Research Centre and the West Auckland Research Centre. We recommend using the DBTextworks version if possible as it enables specific field searching, the results can be easier to interpret and you can utilise the ‘browse feature’ to look up terms used in the index (helpful if you are unsure of spellings etc).

The index does not contain the content of the minute books themselves, so you will need to note the district, bookname and page numbers to then refer to the appropriate hard copy or microfilmed minute book. The hard copies can sometimes be easier to read than the microfilmed versions. Also, multiple volumes can be included on one reel of microfilm; each volume is only indicated at the start of that volume - which can make finding the appropriate volume and page more difficult.

When searching, you would usually be using some of the following information:

  • Names of land blocks
  • Names of people who may have given evidence in court between 1865-1910 or died before 1910
  • Names of hapū or iwi who may have been mentioned in court between 1865-1910

Other possibilities include date, place of sitting, judge, type of case or district.

This screenshot shows a search for succession cases on the Wairoa block involving Wiremu Kauika, using the Advanced Search:

Note that the database uses the surname, first name format. Eg Kauika, Wiremu

As is often the case when database searching, ‘less is more’, and it may be appropriate to include search information in only one field; sometimes just searching on a surname is sufficient. If you get too many irrelevant results than you can add more information to narrow your search.

A useful tip for name searching which accommodates the fact that names may have been recorded in the minute books in different orders, is to use the ‘within’ operator. Eg a search for Wiremu W2 Kauika will find all records where ‘Wiremu’ is within two words of ‘Kauika’ (in either order) allowing for an intervening middle name.

This screen shot shows this search, using Basic Search:

In terms of whakapapa research, when you review your search results the following information fields in the index’s records are particularly important:

KAIKŌRERO: Witnesses and conductors (kaiwhakahaere). These are the people who stood up to speak. They are listed in order of appearance.

HAPŪ: Hapū listed may be connected with the block of land, with the witnesses giving the evidence or frequently mentioned in the text.

NOTES: Page numbers for judgements, lists of owners etc in longer cases and other miscellaneous information. Note that information on tamaiti whāngai may be included here (a child adopted informally in terms of tikanga Māori and brought up as the adopting parent’s own child without formal adoption being concluded by any court).

WHAKAPAPA: Person giving whakapapa of more than 20 names

TIPUNA: First name or names listed at the top of the whakapapa table

TANGATA: Deceased person (eg in succession cases), adoptee, minor etc

WHAKPAGE: Page numbers for whakapapa

Here is an example of a record found by the above search.

The minute books indexed for 1890-1910 are especially rich in detailed whakapapa, including lists which can spread over 5-10 pages.

The following is also useful to note (adapted from the Comprehensive Search Guide):

Whakapapa containing more than 20 names have been indexed by the name of the person reciting the whakapapa, and by the name or, occasionally names, of the tipuna at the top of the whakapapa. In the Advanced Search, use the Tipuna/Ancestor field box to search for person reciting whakapapa and for tipuna.

It is also possible to find whakapapa without having a specific name to search. To do this, you will need to change the query screen to one which includes a box for each indexed field in the database. In the top menu choose Search > Select Query Screen > Basic Query Screen Type >0 in the Whakapapa field box. This will find all cases containing whakapapa. You can narrow this to a specific hapū or place using the Hapū or Place fields. For example, a search for all cases containing whakapapa for the hapū Ngarauru results in 27 records.

Cases containing many short whakapapa of less than 20 names have been noted with the phrase "short whakapapa" in the Notes field. 

When searching for names, it is important to try spelling variants:

Spelling - if a search doesn't find any records, or if you want to be sure you have found all the records about a particular person, try variations in spelling, eg Tamehana or Tamihana. Because the minute books are often difficult to read, the name may not have been spelled correctly. Try substituting e for i, a for u , n for ri etc. Taria and Tana for example, can look very similar. You can also use Browse choices from the Edit menu to browse through all the names in the index. Truncation, using the * and the first few letters of the name is another useful strategy. (eg a search for Rangi* finds every name beginning with Rangi including Rangiwhakaoma, Rangipaia, Rangiwhenua etc.) Remember, too, that names may be spelt with double vowels eg Hori or Hoori. 

When you are searching the Index, the Auckland University’s Quick Search Guide is useful to refer to. If more detail is required and for extensive background notes, see their Comprehensive Search Guide, although note that there have been some functionality changes since these guides were produced.

The minute books themselves run up to 1975. For 1911 onwards (beyond the computerised index) there are a couple of options for searching:

Indexes within the minute books themselves. Each minute book (with the exception of some very early ones) has a ‘block index’, usually at the start of the book, occasionally at the end. Most minute books also have a ‘succession index’ indexing succession orders by the name of the deceased. Note that Māori names are entered under their first name in this index.

Printed indexes. These are available for the years 1865-1900, 1900-1962 and 1962-1975, however the information contained in the indexes is limited to: names of the minute books, the dates and location of sittings, and (for the later period) the names of the judges. The printed indexes are held by the relevant District Offices and a small number of libraries (including Auckland Libraries for the 1865-1900 and 1900-1962 indexes) and also Archives New Zealand.

In addition to the Māori Land Court Minute Books there are many other resources for whakapapa research; see Auckland Libraries’ suggested resources.

Your whakapapa is taonga. 
Treat it with respect and it will 
enrich your life and the life of those who come after you.
(Roberts, 2006)

Part 1 of this post covered the background to the Māori Land Court Minute Books.

Roberts, Jude (2006). ‘Layer upon layer: Whakapapa’. 

Rachel, Reference Librarian - Heritage

With assistance kindly provided by: 
Robert Eruera, Senior Librarian Pou Ārahi Taonga
Raewyn Paewai, Senior Librarian Māori Research
Linda Hogan, Librarian – Research
I would also like to acknowledge the talk on this subject given by Margaret Ngaropo, former Pou Kohinga Matua

Tuesday's Tip: NEW Family History video presentation available online

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We've had a sudden release of family history videos published to our website - packed full of loads of tips for this Tuesday!

New online:

Colleen Fitzpatrick: The "Unknown Child" of the Titanic - identified?

20 April 2015
Of the 328 bodies recovered by the salvage operation of the SS Titanic, just one was that of a child. His identity was unknown for nearly a century until 2002, when Dr. Alan Ruffman and Dr. Ryan Parr announced that they had identified the remains of the “Unknown Child”. But was this identification correct? Hear how we resolved the controversy so that the Unknown Child of the Titanic was unknown no longer.

Exploring Online Cenotaph with Victoria Passau

15 April 2015
New Zealanders have served this country in many international conflicts. Online Cenotaph, created by Auckland War Memorial Museum, aims to commemorate the stories of these veterans. This session showcases the new Online Cenotaph and discusses how family members and private researchers can contribute.

'The three uncles' The Cole brothers in the Great War with Tina Blackman

15 April 2015
An in-depth look at how the First World War affected one family where four brothers went to the Western Front and only one survived. In Tina Blackman's book, The three uncles: the Cole brothers in the Great War, readers will discover an extraordinary story that will resonate with many whose families were touched by the First World War.

Still to come: Colleen Fitzpatrick’s other two talks from 20 April:- CSI Roots and Adoption searches.

This will bring us to the end of our pilot programme of recording family history talks at this stage.

Family History Talks Online

See Auckland Libraries website for family history events, including the Auckland Family History Expo and other happenings during New Zealand Family History Month in August.

Amanuensis Monday:- Māori Land Court Minute Books - Part 1: Background

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The Māori Land Court minute books are a very important resource for whakapapa research. They are also valuable for local history, early Māori history, and Waitangi Tribunal research.

“Whakapapa literally means the ‘laying down of generations’ layer upon layer. Whakapapa is about people, it is a link to tūpuna, to heritage, to identity. For Māori it is a taonga, and for many it is also tapu. Traditionally whakapapa was handed down orally to a member of the whānau deemed appropriate to look after the whānau whakapapa.” (Paewai, 2015, p2).

The Native Land Court (renamed Māori Land Court in 1947) was established in 1865 with the purpose of translating customary Māori land ownership into legal land titles recognisable under English Law.
Traditional Māori land rights involved communal ownership of land. The hapū (sub tribe) or iwi (tribe) had to prove their traditional rights to land on the basis of occupation, conquest, or ancestry. The gifting of land was also taken into account. Occupation was symbolized by the term "ahi kaa" meaning "to keep the home fires burning". This meant that the hapū had to establish their genealogical connections as well as their physical and emotional ties to a piece of land… When an owner of Māori land dies it is necessary for the person or persons succeeding to that land, to prove their entitlement or right of succession. To do this they must present their whakapapa to the Māori Land Court. (Paewai, 2015, p6).
The Māori Land Court is still in operation, and is organised by seven districts: Taitokerau, Waikato-Maniapoto, Tairāwhiti, Waiariki, Aotea, Tākitimu, and Waipounamu. View maps and details of district offices. Current ownership of Māori land can be searched through Māori Land Online.
As Māori were brought before the court to determine native land entitlements and ownerships, the oral traditions of Māori citing their relationship to the land and the ancestors of it were recorded in the historical minute books. These recitals provide a profound insight into the heritage of the land and the people referred to. (Clement, 2012)
Page from Kaipara Minute Books (Taitokerau Court) Volume 2
3 Sept 1866 - 9 March 1871

The original minute books are held by the Māori Land Court. Photocopied or microfilmed versions are held elsewhere, including some large public and tertiary libraries and branch National Archives offices.

In recognition of their value as a unique archival resource and taonga Māori, in 2012 the minute books were listed in UNESCO’s New Zealand Memory of the World documentary heritage register.

It should be noted that there are four types of minute books:
  • District minute books
  • Judges / Commissioners minute books
  • Appellate minute books (appeals were held by a special Native Appellate Court from 1894 onwards)
  • Papatipu / Papatupu minute books – these are held in district offices only. District offices also hold additional records (block order files, application files, correspondence files, whakapapa files and nominal indexes for owners of land)

Auckland Libraries holds the following minute books:
  • Auckland Central Research Centre – all districts on microfilm, hardcopies of the following minute books: Northern, Auckland, Hauraki, Ōrākei, Kaipara, Mahurangi, Taitokerau, Waikato 
  • South Auckland Research Centre – all districts on microfilm
  • West Auckland Research Centre – all districts on microfilm, all districts in hardcopy
  • North Auckland Research Centre – hard copies of the following minute books: Auckland, Kaipara, Mahurangi and Ōrākei

None of these collections are totally complete, some books were missed in the digitisation process, and some of the original Māori Land Court minute books are missing.

It is important to acknowledge that the processes around applying for Native Land Court title were complex and problematic, and some of the content in the minute books is controversial and subject to dispute. The rush from the Crown to individualise title resulted in errors, and representations were sometimes received from those without a genuine mandate. See Te ture – Maori and legislation and Background to the Māori Land Court minute books for further information.

Part 2 of this post will cover searching the Māori Land Court minute books.

Clement, Christine (2012). ‘Discovering Māori links. Inside History, Jan/Feb, p42-44.
Paewai, Raewyn (2015) ‘Whakapapa for Beginners’. [Handout produced for Auckland Libraries’ workshops and customer use.]

Rachel, Reference Librarian - Heritage

With assistance kindly provided by:
Robert Eruera, Senior Librarian Pou Ārahi Taonga
Raewyn Paewai, Senior Librarian Māori Research
Linda Hogan, Librarian – Research
I would also like to acknowledge the talk on this subject given by Margaret Ngaropo, former Pou Kohinga Matua

Motivation Monday: little gems on Scotland & the Panama Canal

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The June 2015 issue of The Scottish Genealogist was delivered to my desk recently and I came across a couple of articles that may be of interest to some of you.

The first is about the Edinburgh Sweating Club; I kid you not.  First appearing in 1750, this was apparently a band of young rogues who would go out drinking in the local hostelries and at midnight would sally forth and terrorise the local populace by snatching wigs off passers-by, chasing and jostling others. It is an interesting and amusing article.

A couple of pages further on in the same issue is a list of the members of the New Associate Congregation, Edinburgh (1785).  Have a look as you may find your ancestor listed; it gives names and place of residence.

Ever wondered where your ancestor went to school?  Another article in the same magazine is titled Scottish Charity Schools in the early 18th century.  This is a list of the charity schools run by the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (SPCK) dated May 1724.  It gives the date of opening, place, parish, name of School-master, number of pupils divided into boys and girls.

The July/August 2015 issue of Your Genealogy Today has an article about records of those who worked on the Panama Canal titled – Finding Grandad at the Canal!  If you have lost one of your male ancestors then perhaps this may be something to consider.  The article mentions a several records that are of help with such a search.

Marie Hickey